Table 1<--?2--> presents the means and standard deviations for the measured variables of interest. The mean depression score in our sample was 4.07 (SD = 4.41), which is consistent with that of other similar populations ( Andresen, Malmgren, Carter, Patrick, 1994; Lewinsohn, Seeley, Roberts, Allen, 1997). The mean burden score was 6.15 (SD = 4.43). The mean level of perceived conflict was low (1.66 on a scale of 0–28) and the mean for staff supportiveness was high ( on a scale of 3–12). Table 2 presents bivariate correlations for all of the latent variables used in our models.
Structural Formula Modeling
While the initial step within analyses, i built and checked out a dimension model of five hidden activities which have 23 counted sign details. The newest hidden build away from recognized ICS consisted of the eight noticed variables; the fresh hidden adjustable of perceived PSS consisted of the 3 indication details of your own architectural equation activities; this new caregiver load latent adjustable contained the new 6 details; while the hidden variable anxiety are counted of the seven details on the CES-D. This new dimensions model produced by the combination of one’s four imputed data set considering a powerful fit into the investigation while the reason behind the brand new structural designs (Relative Match List otherwise CFI = 0.993; Tucker Lewis Index otherwise TLI = 0.995; and means mean-square error out of approximation or RMSEA = 0.037).
We first tested the model for the presence of a direct effect of (a) staff supportiveness and (b) perceived conflict with staff on caregiver depression. This model was obtained from the combination of the five imputed data sets and controlled for family caregiver and care recipient characteristics. The overall model was significant (CFI = 0.966; TLI = 0.971; RMSEA = 0.041). Although the ICS latent variable showed significant positive associations with the latent variable of depression (? = 0.109, p <.01), the PSS latent variable did not demonstrated a significant association with the latent variable of depression (see Figure 1).
2nd, i tested an unit one looked at brand new direct outcomes within staff–family relations dating quality measures and depression, as well as indirect outcomes of the staff–friends dating quality measures to the despair courtesy caregiver weight
This model was obtained from the combination of the five imputed data sets and had a strong fit to the data as indicated by a CFI of 0.949, a TLI of 0.958, and an RMSEA of 0.048. The nonstandardized parameter estimates and significance levels for the structural paths among the latent constructs are presented in Figure 2. Although this is not shown in the diagram https://datingranking.net/college-hookup-apps/, we allowed all predictor latent variables to covary and they evidenced significant covariation (p <.0001 for all relationships). Results from the analyses indicate that perceived ICS was positively associated with caregiver burden (? = 0.26, p <.001). Staff supportiveness was also negatively associated with caregiver burden (? = ?0.11, p <.05). Finally, caregiver burden demonstrated a significant positive association with depression (? = 0.39, p <.0001).
We compared the mediation model with a model that constrained the path between caregiver burden and depression to zero. As we expected, constraining the paths linking caregiver burden to depression led to significant changes in model estimation. The model fit worsened (CFI = 0.949 vs 0.933 and RMSEA = 0.048 vs 0.058) and there was a significant change in the regression coefficient for the effect of perceived conflict (? = ?0.03, ns, vs ? = 0.43, p <.0001) on depression.
Because we used imputed data, we could not conduct the traditional testing of nested models with the effect of caregiver burden on depression constrained to zero. MPlus does not provide an option for comparing chi-square values across imputed models. In order to address this issue, we performed a chi-square difference test for each of the five models. As a result of the ordered categorical nature of the data, the simple subtraction of chi-square values obtained by using the weighted least squares with mean variance adjustment estimation method results in values that are not distributed as a chi-square ( Muthen Muthen, 2006). Therefore, we used the DIFFTEST procedure in MPlus to obtain an adjusted chi-square difference test of nested models. Table 3<--?3--> contains the results from each of the five DIFFTEST results run individually for each of the five imputed data sets. These results clearly indicate a significantly better model fit for the mediation models than the models with the effect of caregiver burden on depression constrained to zero for all five of the imputed data sets.